Keychain KC " with clip Materials Plush from all new materials. Stuffed with polyester fiber fill. Packaging Each plush microbe includes a printed card with fun, educational and fascinating facts about the actual microbe or cell.
Yersinia pestis is perhaps the most lethal bacterium. It is the cause of the Black Death, or plague.
It is named for Alexander Yersin, who first isolated the bacterium from victims in Hong Kong in Yersinia pestis is primarily transmitted through flea bites; the principal reservoir are ground dwelling rodents. The flea bites an infected mammal and the bacterium becomes lodged in the flea digestive tract.
It forms a blockage, and the flea is unable to eat. It bites other mammals, and in trying to eat it throws up on the bite.
This infects the next mammal1. At higher temperatures the blockage dissolves, so plague reservoirs tend to be located in cooler mountainous areas. Australia is the only continent without a reservoir; in the United States there are two reservoir areas or foci: A multiple drug resistant strain has been found in Madagascar2.
Humans can be infected in three ways: The disease has three stages: Once the flea bites, the bite may or may not become infected.
The bacteria only becomes virulent when it has been absorbed by phagocytes. It then produces two proteins F1, VW in a slime layer. This is called a bubo. This is the only external sign of infection. Other symptoms include fever, headache, and exhaustion.
Once the infection enters the lungs, it is in the pneumonic form. Death occurs from septic shock3. The drug of choice is streptomycin2; tetracycline is used prophylactic ally3.
The death rate for treated patients in the U. Death occurs fairly rapidly, so if a person has had contact with fleas or rodents in infected areas treatment is begun prior to positive lab identification4.
Efforts to control the disease through eradication of the reservoir has proven futile.
Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, can survive within the ubiquitous soil protozoan, the amoeba, by producing proteins that protect against the latter microbe’s digestion. Plague is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, a naturally occurring bacterium found primarily in wild rodents. Plague has been the cause of 3 of the great pandemics of the modern era-in the mid-6th century, the midth century (known as the Black Death), and the early 20th century. The evolutionary mark of Y. pestis and the Black Death; The evolutionary mark of Y. pestis and the Black Death By Roseanne Zhao January's Genome Advance features two studies that use genomics to explore the role of the Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) bacterium in two historic plague pandemics and its evolutionary mark on the human genome.
A vaccine exists, although it is not available in the US. It is not effective against the pneumonic form, and its protection only last a year or two. Subunit vaccines based on the F1 and VW proteins are being developed5.
Due to its virulence, this organism is considered a possible bioweapon. It has already been used for this purpose. In the Middle Ages, armies would sometimes catapult infected bodies into towns they were besieging.
The Japanese army dropped infected fleas in shell casings over China6. Yersinia pestis has several factors that contribute to its virulence. These include an extra cellular protein capsule that inhibits phagocytosis.
It also produces a protein, Yop, that prevents immune system signaling5. It also has two endotoxins, murine and pesticin. The cell wall is short and rough; this prevents easy attachment of the Membrane Attack Complex3.
Yersinia pestis is a gram negative bipolar cocco-bacillus with a safety pin appearance8. It is a non motile facultative anaerobe9.Life History Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease often referred to as the plague.
The Y. pestis is an extremely virulent pathogen that is likely to cause severe illness and death upon infection unless antibiotics are lausannecongress2018.com the past, Y.
pestis has caused devastating epidemics during three periods of modern history; the Justinian Plague. Yesinia Pestis Yesinia Pestis is the bacteria that caused the Bubonic Plague in and marched across Europe killing many people. This bacterium can grow with or . Nov 28, · The approximate minimum and maximum divergence times of the intermediate lausannecongress2018.com cluster were calculated by multiplying our value for F by the distance between the two minimum and the two maximum ages of lausannecongress2018.com microtus (41 AD – AD) and the Black Death ( AD – AD).
Plague is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, a naturally occurring bacterium found primarily in wild rodents. Plague has been the cause of 3 of the great pandemics of the modern era-in the mid-6th century, the midth century (known as the Black Death), and the early 20th century.
Plague, infectious fever caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis, a bacterium transmitted from rodents to humans by the bite of infected fleas. Plague was the cause of some of the most-devastating epidemics in history. It was the disease behind the Black Death of the 14th century, when as much as one-third of Europe’s population died.
Alexandre Yersin first discovered Yersinia pestis in at the Pasteur Institute, while a plague occurred in Hong Kong, cause by this Y. pestis bacterium. Yersin was the first to link the plague to Y.
pestis and therefore the original name of the bacterium, Pasteurella pestis, .