Waterwheels come in four basic varieties, of varying efficiency. Which type you can build is governed largely by the local geography
Water wheels come in two basic designs: The latter can be subdivided according to where the water hits the Waterwheels essay into backshot pitch-back  overshot, breastshot, undershot, and stream-wheels. Most water wheels in the United Kingdom and the United States are or were vertical wheels rotating about a horizontal axle, but in the Scottish highlands and parts of Southern Europe mills often had a horizontal wheel with a vertical axle.
Horizontal wheel with a vertical axis A jet of water strikes blades mounted on the axle Driving surfaces — blades Water — low volume, high head Efficiency — poor Diagram of vertical axis water mill.
Stream also known as free surface. Ship wheels are a type of stream wheel. Breastshot Vertical wheel with horizontal axle The water hits the wheel roughly central, typically between one quarter and three quarters of the height.
Breastshot wheels are more suited to large flows with a moderate head. Undershot and stream wheel use large flows at little or no head. There is often an associated millponda reservoir for storing water and hence energy until it is needed.
Larger heads store more potential energy for the same amount of water so the reservoirs for overshot and backshot wheels tend to be smaller than for breast shot wheels.
Breastshot and undershot wheels can be used on rivers or high volume flows with large reservoirs. Diagram of vertical axis water mill. A horizontal wheel with a vertical axle.
Commonly called a tub wheel, Norse mill or Greek mill,   the horizontal wheel is a primitive and inefficient form of the modern turbine.
However if it delivers the required power then the efficiency is of secondary importance. It is usually mounted inside a mill building below the working floor. A jet of water is directed on to the paddles of the water wheel, causing them to turn.
This is a simple system usually without gearing so that the vertical axle of the water wheel becomes the drive spindle of the mill.
Stream[ edit ] Diagram of stream shot waterwheel. A stream wheel   is a vertically mounted water wheel that is rotated by the water in a water course striking paddles or blades at the bottom of the wheel.
This type of water wheel is the oldest type of horizontal axis wheel. They do not constitute a major change of the river.Waterwheel: Waterwheel, mechanical device for tapping the energy of running or falling water by means of a set of paddles mounted around a wheel.
The force of the moving water is exerted against the paddles, and the consequent rotation of the wheel is transmitted to machinery via the shaft of the wheel. The. Cause and Effect of my Hallucinations Essay - The cause and effect of drugs seems like an easy topic to write about, you take drugs to get high and the effect is that it .
Three types of waterwheels are tha horizontal waterwheel, overshot vertical waterwheel, and undershot vertical waterwheel.
In the horizontal waterwheel, water flows from an aqueduct or pipe from the side of the wheel and onto the wheel. The three types of waterwheels are the horizontal waterwheel, the undershot vertical waterwheel, and the overshot vertical waterwheel. For simplicity they are simply known as .
Since the dawn of civilizations, man has harnessed the power of flowing water. The use of waterwheels dates from ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, where they were used for the milling of grain/5(1).
A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill. A water wheel consists of a wheel (usually constructed from wood or metal), with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface.