The history of the maghrib an interpretive essay

Add to basket Add to wishlist Description This survey of North African history challenges both conventional attitudes toward North Africa and previously published histories written from the point of view of Western scholarship. Drawing on the methods of sociology and political science as well as traditional and modern historical approaches, the author stresses the evolution marked by these four stages and the internal forces that affected it. Until now, the author contends, North African history has been written either by colonial administrators and politicians concerned to defend foreign rule, or by nationalist ideologues.

The history of the maghrib an interpretive essay

When it fell to the Romans the great city had become mostly a burning ruin, and the long rivalry between the two major powers of the western Mediterranean came to an end.

Rome annexed Carthage and its immediate vicinity, but the surrounding territories remained in Berber hands, specifically in those of King Masinissa, an ally of Rome. Subsequent independent Berber kings were courted by Rome. Previously, Carthage had enjoyed fabled wealth through commerce.

Yet Carthage directly ruled only an ample territory adjacent to the city and its developed network of trading posts. These Punic enclaves were situated at short intervals along the Mediterranean coast of Africa from Tripolitania westward.

Berber Kingdoms of Sfax and Gaia, west of Carthage, c. Comparatively little is known of the most ancient Berber peoples since the few surviving writings from Carthage shed little light on this history, although surviving inscriptions and artifacts do offer some clues and hints.

Starting with the Punic Wars, Berbers are, however, mentioned in surviving works of classical Greek and Roman authors and these sources provide some details in the descriptions of Berber events.

The history of the maghrib an interpretive essay

The fall of the Roman Republic BC led to the Roman civil warswhose intermittent military actions and political strife indirectly amplified the significance of the Berber kings. Amid the oscillating demands and shifting fortunes, Berber alliances were sought by rival Roman factions.

Berber relations with Rome became multivalent and fluid, characterized variously as a working alliance, functional ambivalence, partisan hostility, veiled maneuvering, and fruitful intercourse.

Nevertheless, during these years of Roman civil conflict the political status of the Berber kings continued to erode.

From being independent sovereign Masinissathe kings had become long-term allies; later their political alliance was required, and eventually they were reduced to Roman clients. Berber kings reigned alongside a triumphant Roman dominion which spanned the entire Mediterranean, and later in 40 AD the last allied Berber kingdom was absorbed by the Empire.

Thereafter, probably most Berber peoples lived within the political boundaries of the Roman world. Markedly influenced by Punic civilization, they had nonetheless endured as separate Berber entities, their culture surviving throughout the long reign of Carthage.

West to east these kingdoms were: Here Masinissa ruled and reigned. Both Rome and the Hellenic states gave Masinissa the honors befitting an admired king. It was excavated from the ancient city of Thugga modern Dougga, Tunisialocated about kilometers inland from Carthage.

The inscription indicates a complex city administration, with the Berber title GLD cognate to modern Berber Agellid, king or paramount tribal chief designating the ruling municipal officer. This top position apparently rotated among the selected members of the leading Berber families.

He was the first and the most important of the early Berber leaders to establish major relations with the Roman state.

His family became, what may be considered, the royal family of Numidia and its vicinity for eight generations: The throne came to Masinissa in a roundabout way from father to uncle to cousin to him. The " sufete " Hebrew: Shophet was a Punic title often translated as "judge" as in the biblical Book of JudgesHebrew being a sister Semitic language to Punic.

King Micipsa was the son of Masinissa. Masinissa served as a young cavalry commander for Carthage in Hispania during the early years of the Second Punic War — There, he met discreetly with the Roman general Scipio and eventually sided with Rome. On the death of his father, King Gala [Gaia], Masinissa sailed home to Massyli, where he fought for the throne against usurpers.

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A neighboring Berber king Syphax invaded the kingdom, but Masinissa escaped to continue his struggle from the outlying farmlands and mountains. Next in Hispania, Masinissa led cavalry units for Carthage against Rome. Here he switched sides to ally with Rome, after meeting with Scipio Africanusthe celebrated Roman general.

Masinissa then became a guerilla chief in the mountains of Africa, regaining his kingdom after a persistent struggle. Sooner after, Syphax staged an invasion, defeating Masinissa and seizing the Massyli kingdom with Masinissa escaping into the bush.

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Later, his forces came upon the army of Scipio, recently landed in Africa. The Romans defeated Carthaginian forces in battle and Syphax was captured.

Masinissa sends envoys to Rome who meet with the Senate.The history of the Maghrib: an interpretive essay. [ʻAbd Allāh ʻArawī; Ralph Manheim] -- This survey of North African history challenges both conventional attitudes toward North Africa and previously published histories written from the point of view of Western scholarship.

The history of the maghrib an interpretive essay

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Stuart Schaar, Brooklyn College of CUNY, Emeritus History Dept., Faculty Member. Studies Middle East & North Africa History and Politics and Comparative Politics. Stuart Schaar graduated from City College of New York as a history major with The History of the Maghrib: An Interpretive Essay more.

by Stuart Schaar. Publication Date: The top image shows the Safsaf Oasis on the surface of the Sahara. The bottom (using radar) is the rock layer underneath, revealing black channels cut by the meandering of .

The History of the Maghrib: An Interpretive Essay: Abdallah Laroui, Professor Ralph Manheim: Libros.

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