Cite Harvard Mohammed, A. Leadership Styles and Job Performance: Journal of International Business Research and Marketing, 3 3pp.
Introduction Employee engagement has gained significant attention in the recent years, with some studies confirming the significant roles they play towards organizational performance. These studies seem to point to the fact that engaged employees are more committed to their organization [ 22 ] and perform better at work [ 844 ].
Again, it is believed that high levels of engaged employees may lead to higher performance [ 623 ], Increase performance [ 20 ], and lower Literature review on leadership style and employee performance intention [ 219 ].
When an employee is engaged, he is aware of his responsibility in the business goals and motivates his colleagues alongside, for the success of the organisational goals.
Engagement at the individual level according to Bakker and Demerouti [ 7 ] is influenced primarily by job resources availability support, autonomy, feedback, etc.
Studies have confirmed the relationship between leadership and employee engagement in several developed countries [ 1734 ]. Employees who have a good relationship with their employers turn to be engaged. In spite of these there exists limited literature in this area in developing countries like Ghana, thus forming the main motivation of this study.
In this paper, the focuses is on how leadership impact on employee engagement and in turn their performance. Specifically the study focuses on leadership and employee engagement and how it affects performance of public sector employees. The paper is structured in four parts; the first part deals with the introduction and the second considers existing literature on leadership, engagement and employee performance.
The third section looks at the methodology and the fourth part deals with data analysis discussion and conclusions. Literature Review This part of the study aims at a systematic review of literature on leadership, employee engagement, and employee performance.
As there is a vast literature available on these subjects, and we do not believe we are able do justice to all preceding studies in such a review, we therefore attempt to briefly explain these concepts.
The study focuses more on conceptual clarification of leadership, followed by employee engagement and then employee performance. There has been immense research on leadership due to the impact it has on individual and organisational performance [ 29 ].
Scholars from different fields of study have looked, and continue to look at the concept and its relationship with employee and organisational performance [ 37 ].
Conceptualising leadership has however been problematic and as a result scholars are yet to come to a universally acceptable definition of the concept.
Consequently, there have been a plethora of definitions, which sometimes create confusion in the mind of all those interested in the subject [ 49 ].
Leadership, according to Robbins and Judgecan be defined as the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of a vision or set of goals p. Yulk on his part defined leadership as "the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives" p.
Kreitner and Kinicki defined leadership as "a social process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organisational goals p.
These definitions suggest certain components essential to the phenomenon of leadership. These include a Leadership as a process b Leadership happens within a group c Leadership involves influencing others and lastly d Leadership aims at the attainment of set goals.
Defining leadership as a process shows that leadership is a transactional event which takes place between leaders and their followers. Also leadership as a way of influencing others means it is a two-way interactive experience between leaders and followers rather than a one-way event in which the leader influences the followers and not vice versa.
We therefore deduce that Leadership is a dynamic process of influencing people with the aim of meeting set objective. Employee Engagement Employee engagement as a concept began to surface in the organizational and business literature about two decades ago [ 41 ] and there continue to beconsiderable debate about what engagement is and how best to define it [ 31 ].
Scholars agree that employee engagement includes both an energy dimension and an identification dimension [ 7 ]. Commonto many of the definitions by researchers of employee engagement is the fact that engagement has a psychological state as well as an emotional state which reflect in their willingness to give off their best and give a sustained discretionary effort to ensure the organisation achieves its goals and succeed.
To be engaged is not just being cognitively attentive to the job or feeling and expressing positive emotions or doing work for doing sake, but rather it reflects investment of one's cognitive, emotional and physical energies simultaneously in the performance of a role assigned [ 35 ].
Employee engagement is perceived as a cognitive and affective participation in the work one does and as such when complications arise in the task assigned, it is viewed either positively which promotes engagement and improve performance or negatively which results in dissatisfaction and distress and therefore obstruct performance [ 43 ].
Cook [ 12 ], pg. Employee engagement is thus a critical non-financial incentive that has a significant impact on work harmony [ 31 ] which should be ensured. Such employees are enthusiastic about their work and have affective and energetic connection to it rather than finding it unduly stressful and demanding [ 7 ].
Employee performance is then seen in terms of employee productivity and output, which affects or helps the organization to be efficient and effective in achieving its goals: Leadership and Employee Performance The research on leadership-subordinate performance is not a new phenomenon as argued by Fleishman and Harris, [ 15 ].
The measurement of relationship between leadership and subordinates and their outcomes haves been the source of considerable discussion. Some scholars contend that the level of relationship between leader and subordinate does have an effect on the way employee behave, based on the assumption that leaders vary their behavior across subordinates [ 1318 ].
According to Mehra, et al. In every organization interpersonal relationship becomes the thing that binds people of all levels together.
This interpersonal relationship is determined by the regularity and manner in which interactions occur between managers and their subordinates [ 1 ].LINKAGE BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLES AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE Naveed Ahmad1*, Alamdar Hussain2, This study is helpful and focused different types of leadership styles on employee performance.
The output of leader’s performance.
Literature review. This paper seeks to identify the relationship between leadership style, employee engagement and performance in public sector organisations.
Employee Engagement and Employee Performance in the Public Sector of Ghana." Journal of Business and Management Sciences ( This part of the study aims at a systematic review of literature on. The leadership style is a contextual function which has direct relationship with the leadership approach of the leader.
Based on the functionality assumption the leadership style can be identified as two dimensional ways independent of each other, where one of it is task oriented associated with supervision of the performance to ensure task .
Review Paper: Leadership styles Leadership styles affect on the employee performance and productivity. This paper summarizes and analyzes leadership style affects organizational performance.
Review of Literature Leadership Styles: Leadership is a social influence. leadership on employee performance and factors affecting the choice of leadership styles, role of leadership to employee.
Impact of Leadership Style on Organization Performance: A Critical Literature Review. Arabian J Bus • • •.
Specifically, this paper tries to review the literature in the sphere of job performance focusing on the leadership styles.
Both leadership types and styles had been reviewed in relation to the productivity in the organization along with .