Under deontology, an act may be considered right even if the act produces a bad consequence,  if it follows the rule or moral law. According to the deontological view, people have a duty to act in a way that does those things that are inherently good as acts "truth-telling" for exampleor follow an objectively obligatory rule as in rule utilitarianism.
When unable to do what they consider the correct action, clinicians--nurses and other healthcare providers--may experience moral distress. Finding ways to successfully deal with ethical conflicts is critical not only to the distressed clinicians but also to organizations striving to improve outcomes, since moral distress can adversely affect patient care and is associated with employee burnout and job turnover.
Support from leaders at the top is essential, said Mary K. Nurses should be familiar with the code and use it on a daily basis, Turner said. Hospitals should incorporate behavior consistent with the code of ethics into job descriptions and consider that during annual performance reviews.
Additionally, some specialty nursing organizations have position statements related to ethical issues which nurses can use as a guide. Competencies for genetics and genomics include an ethics component.
Education gives nurses tools for decision making, added Marsha D. Education may not always produce the expected results. Researchers at Loyola found that burn ICU nurses actually reported higher moral distress scores after participating in a four-week intervention about moral distress.
But six weeks later, the scores went back down. Wasson, a co-investigator, surmised that the program may have raised awareness or brought up thoughts of past cases. But later the nurses were able to process the information.
And the younger nurses said they sometimes wonder if anyone else feels that way.
Create an environment where nurses can speak up Having a practice environment that supports nurses in raising ethical questions and empowering them to address those concerns also is vital, Daly said.
Ethical issues are complicated and everyone brings their own experiences and values to the situation. The best ethical analysis is done in the open with other people. Bring different disciplines together Physicians and nurses experience shared suffering. Working together could prove beneficial in addressing moral distress.
Clinical ethics rounds often are helpful in addressing concerns, Turner added. Nurses also should be included in discussions about patient goals. Provide ethics experts On-site nurse ethicists or other ethics professionals who clinicians can confidentially talk with are valuable in helping people look at the situation from other perspectives.
Watson often begins by asking questions to help nurses think through their concern and related values. Then she may suggest they talk with the patient or family to gain perspective or an understanding of their choices.
She then can help the nurses focus on what went well, how they contributed to improving the situation, how they treated the person with respect and dignity and other positives.
All staff should feel safe in reaching out, perhaps to request a consultation or just to talk things through, Daly said. Add unit-based ethics mentors Connie M. Everyday ethical issues need to be addressed, said Connie M.
She suggested hospitals could develop unit-based ethics mentors, who could help their colleagues with those day-to-day concerns that come up. Hold a family conference Family conferences bring everyone together and should be planned, with clinicians thinking through uncertainties and recommendations before the meeting.
Cecile Yacat, RN, recommended family conferences to address important topics and ethical issues. Sponsor ethics journal or book clubs Book clubs and journal clubs offer an opportunity to focus on ethics.
Hospitals often can organize them, so participants can obtain continuing education credits, Turner said. Reading articles helps nurses to realize other people have experienced similar feelings. A journal club can make it safe to talk about, because the discussion starts with the article, although it can move into personal values, Watson said.
Many nursing journals include an ethics column. The journal Nursing Ethics is dedicated to the topic. ANA publishes articles about ethical issues the Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, which is online and available at no cost.
The World Health Organization offers an international ethics perspective. Reach out to professional associations Professional associations often provide resources to assist with training and handling of ethical issues.
The ANA offers more than a dozen online ethics continuing education programs. Summit participants will discuss the inevitability of moral distress in familiar situations.
Organizations, such as the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities, which has an affinity group for nurses, hold annual conferences. Offer employee counseling services Nurses especially troubled by an ethical issue--perhaps relating to something happening in their personal lives or how the current situation rekindles past events--may benefit from individual sessions with a counselor from an employee assistance program EAP.Moral Ground: Ethical Action for a Planet in Peril [Kathleen Dean Moore, Michael P.
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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology..
Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong. Moral relativism may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different people and cultures.
Descriptive moral relativism holds only that some people do in fact disagree about what is moral; meta-ethical moral relativism holds that in such disagreements, nobody is objectively right or wrong; and normative moral relativism holds that. Moral and ethical implications. Genetic discrimination has moral and ethical implications.
The debate over these issues has historical roots. In this article we examine the moral and ethical implications of genetic testing and potential discrimination from perspectives that are dominant in the US healthcare system.
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Do. Seek to understand your colleague’s perspective — why is she acting the way she is? Consider the benefits of speaking up against the potential consequences.