Genome is the whole genetic information of an organism. The idea of human genome project started in Decemberwhen the U. Department of Energy DOENational Institutes of Health NIH and international groups had sponsored meeting to consider the feasibility and usefulness of mapping and sequencing the human genome. The aim of DOE is to make human genome as a way of aiding the detection of mutations that nuclear reaction might cause.
InJames Watson and Francis Crick described the double helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid DNAthe chemical compound that contains the genetic instructions for building, running and maintaining living organisms.
Methods to determine the order, or sequence, of the chemical letters in DNA were developed in the mids. Inthe National Institutes of Health NIH and the Department of Energy joined with international partners in a quest to sequence all 3 billion letters, or base pairs, in the human genome, which is the complete set of DNA in the human body.
This concerted, public effort was the Human Genome Project. From the start, the Human Genome Project supported an Ethical, Legal and Social Implications research program to address the many complex issues that might arise from this science.
All data generated by the Human Genome Project were made freely and rapidly available on the Internet, serving to accelerate the pace of medical discovery around the globe.
The Human Genome project spurred a revolution in biotechnology innovation around the world and played a key role in making the U. In Aprilresearchers successfully completed the Human Genome Project, under budget and more than two years ahead of schedule.
There are now more than 2, genetic tests for human conditions. These tests enable patients to learn their genetic risks for disease and also help healthcare professionals to diagnose disease. At least biotechnology-based products resulting from the Human Genome Project are currently in clinical trials.
Having the complete sequence of the human genome is similar to having all the pages of a manual needed to make the human body. The challenge now is to determine how to read the contents of these pages and understand how all of these many, complex parts work together in human health and disease.
One major step toward such comprehensive understanding was the development in of the HapMap http: Inthe third phase of the HapMap project was published, with data from 11 global populations, the largest survey of human genetic variation performed to date.
HapMap data have accelerated the search for genes involved in common human diseases, and have already yielded impressive results in finding genetic factors involved in conditions ranging from age-related blindness to obesity.
The tools created through the Human Genome Project continue to underlie efforts to characterize the genomes of important organisms used extensively in biomedical research, including fruit flies, roundworms, and mice.
With the drastic decline in the cost of sequencing whole exomes or genomes, groundbreaking comparative genomic studies are now identifiying the causes of rare diseases such as Kabuki and Miller syndromes.
Much work still remains to be done. Despite many important genetic discoveries, the genetics of complex diseases such as heart disease are still far from clear.
Pharmacogenomic tests can already identify whether or not a breast cancer patient will respond to the drug Herceptin, whether an AIDS patient should take the drug Abacavir, or what the correct dose of the blood-thinner Warfarin should be.
Based on a deeper understanding of disease at the genomic level, we will see a whole new generation of targeted interventions, many of which will be drugs that are much more effective and cause fewer side effects than those available today.
NIH-supported access to high-throughput screening of small molecule libraries will provide academic researchers with powerful new research probes to explore the hundreds of thousands of proteins believed to be encoded by the approximately 25, genes in the human genome, and will provide innovative techniques to spur development of new, more effective, types of drugs.
The increasing ability to connect DNA variation with non-medical conditions, such as intelligence and personality traits, will challenge society, making the role of ethical, legal and social implications research more important than ever.
For additional information contact:Human Genome Project. In , the U.S Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) joined with international partners in an expedition to sequence all 3 billion chemical base pairs in the human genome which is the complete set of DNA in the human body.
The Department of Energy's Human Genome Program and the National Institutes of Health's National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) together coordinate the HGP. The HGP's original plan was a three billion dollar year project that would be completed in FACT SHEET - Human Genome Project National Institutes of Health Updated October 2 professionals will be able to work with individuals to NIH’s Ethical, Legal and Social Implications program.
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of genome analysis technologies, including large-scale genome sequencing. This brief overview an analysis of the human genome project research program is .
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Meredith without a name epigrammatizing her. The NHGRI Genome Sequencing Program (GSP) has evolved from NIH's participation in the International Human Genome Sequencing Project (HGP). In addition to creating an essential resource for biomedical research, the HGP helped define NHGRI's niche: developing general paradigms and approaches, and creating data resources and tools.